Design principles and construction physics of passive houses
Passive house is a building with excellent thermal protection, which requires minimal active heating system.
Summary requirements for a passive house:
- flat annual heat energy demand is 15 kWh / m2 a and less
- total amount of energy connected with the operation of the family house (heating, hot water, electricity for appliances) should not exceed 120kWh / m2 year
- measuring building heat loss per 1 m2 of floor area of heated area should not exceed 0.3W / m measuring building heat loss per 1 m2 of floor area of heated area should not exceed 0.3W / m2.K K
- peripheral structures should have a heat transfer coefficient U equal to or less than 0.15 W / m2K
- peripheral structures must be practically airtight in satisfactory hygienic air exchange
Passive house energetic characteristics are influenced by:
1. land, location of the FH on the land, its orientation with respect to the cardinal points
– all passive houses MM House are designed so that they, during functional placement on any building parcel in compliance with the Building Act, meet the necessary parameters for passive houses in this area
2. very good insulation of external building structures
– bottom construction: passive houses MM House are based on layers of foamed glass, and that is why all the external structures of the bottom construction meet the strictest thermal insulation requirements
– peripheral and roof structures are structurally insulated by spraying polyurethane closed-cell structure foam at a thickness of 160 mm respectively 340 mm, what constitutes a sufficient thermal resistance of structures
3. careful design and realization of thermal protection of the building in details
– all details
4. shape solution of the building
5. size of glass surfaces and the quality of their structures
– location and size of translucent structures in passive houses MM House are designed with an emphasis on the heat gain from sunlight
– windows, glass walls and doors supplied for our passive houses meet the requirements for use in structures of passive houses
6. cover airtightness of the family house verified by the test Bloower Door
– each passive wooden house MM House is at the end subjected to the test of airtightness of the building according to STN EN 13829. The essence of the test is to determine the overall intensity of air exchange n50 at a pressure difference of 50 Pa – that is how many times per hour air changes throughout the volume of the building. Energetically passive buildings have n50 = 0,6 / h. (Conventional buildings, for comparison, about n50 = 4,5 / h.)
7. optimized ventilation – reducing heat loss caused by ventilation
– in passive wooden houses MM House, by using the technology of the regenerative air exchange, up to 70% of the heat is recovered, otherwise destined for unused vent to the exterior.
8. suitable choice of heat source for heating
Production and installation of passive houses MM House
The entire production of individual parts of wooden houses takes place in a new production complex in Veľký Šariš. Supplied raw logs are lengthwise cut into prisms for construction using modern technologies. They are dried in two independent drying rooms to the desired moisture content of 16%, are shortened and planed to the exact length and cross section and are protected against fungus, mould and decaying insects by impregnation in a special tank with fungicidal and insecticidal solution. Frame structures are produced on assembly tables from these upcoming construction prisms and large-format OSB boards. Peripheral and roof panels are structurally insulated by spraying PUR foam to give complete structural components intended for installation of perimeter walls, partition walls, walls and roof structure.
Ready-made structural elements – panels are transported to the concerned construction site, where they are mounted to the concrete bottom construction with a crane technology.